Let z = a + bı. Consider the complex number z plotted in the
complex plane. The distance between z and the origin is called the
modulus of z (symbolized | z|) and is equal to . The
angle θ between the positive real axis and the ray containing z
whose endpoint is the origin is called the argument of z, and is equal to
arctan(). The polar form of a complex number z = a + bı is this: z = r(cos(θ) + ısin(θ)), where r = | z|
and θ is the argument of z. Polar form is sometimes called
trigonometric form as well.

The polar form of a complex number is especially useful when we're working with
powers and roots of a complex number. First, we'll look at the multiplication
and division rules for complex numbers in polar form. Let z_{1} = r_{1}(cos(θ_{1}) + ısin(θ_{1}))andz_{2} = r_{2}(cos(θ_{2}) + ısin(θ_{2})) be complex numbers in polar form.

These equations arise from the sum and difference formulas for the trigonometric
functions sine and cosine.

The power of a complex number is given by an equation known as De Moivre's
Theorem:
Let z = r(cos(θ) + ısin(θ). Then z^{n} = [r(cos(θ) + ısin(θ)]^{n} = r^{n}(cos(nθ) + ısin(nθ), where n is
any positive integer.

The roots of a complex number are also given by a formula. A complex number
a + bı is an nth root of a complex number z if z = (a + bı)^{n},
where n is a positive integer. A complex number z = r(cos(θ) + ısin(θ) has exactly nnth roots given by the equation
[cos() + ısin()], where n is any positive integer, and k = 0, 1, 2,..., n - 2, n - 1.

When the nth roots of a complex number are graphed in the complex plane, they
all lie on the same circle with radius r^{}1n. They are also all
evenly spaced around the circle, like spokes on a bike. This is because the
arguments of consecutive roots differ by a measure of radians.